Health & Research
Understanding, Improvement, Benefits
Researchers from University of Gloucestershire are currently conducting a study to understand some of the main factors, which can affect RaceRunning performance. Despite the growth of RaceRunning on the international para-athletic scene and the sport featuring at the World Para Athletics European Championships in Berlin (2018), there is a scarcity of research about how to improve RaceRunning performance. The team are looking at a range of physiological variables (cardiovascular capacity, joint range of motion, strength and power) and technical factors (foot strike pattern, body position) to see what affects RaceRunning performance. Once it is known, which of these factors contribute the most to RaceRunning speed, coaches can begin to tailor their programmes more specifically so their athletes can work on the most important elements in their training.
Researchers from Queen Margaret’s University, Edinburgh, University of Gloucestershire and Brunel University, London, were recently awarded an Action Medical Research grant to investigate the feasibility of carrying out a larger study looking at the effects of RaceRunning on the risk of heart disease, type 2 diabetes and mobility in these children moderate-to-severe cerebral palsy. Before starting a large study, it is important to find out if participants enjoy RaceRunning and are therefore likely to complete the study. Cardiometabolic risk factors and mobility will be measured at 12 and 24 weeks and these initial results will help researchers to design a larger, more comprehensive study. If RaceRunning is able to reduce the risk of heart disease and diabetes, this could have a major effect on the health of children with cerebral palsy throughout their lives. Improvements in mobility may also positively affect children’s quality of life and independence.
For more information about this grant, please go to: https://www.action.org.uk/our-research/cerebral-palsy-can-regular-exercise-improve-health-and-mobility or contact the research team: Dr Marietta Van Der Linden (MVanDerLinden@qmu.ac.uk) or Dr Nicola Theis (email@example.com).
The preliminary findings of Tessa Gallinger's Masters thesis indicated that muscle length can increase with high velocity training in individuals with CP. In some subjects there was no change in muscle length, however in those individuals Gallinger saw an optimal shift in the force-length relationship, indicating an increase in sarcomeres in series - the fundamental unit of muscle structure.
Read the full article here
The University of Edinburgh has produced two informative RaceRunning animations as part of their project to research suitability of animation in communicating research findings. The aim of the animations is to expand the potential audience reach and impact of such research and to more effectively convey and engage people beyond the research community.
The research currently being carried out by the University of Edinburgh in collaboration with CPISRA has produced two animations, the first describing What Is RaceRunning and the second detailing RaceRunning Physiology Research currently being carried out.
Access the videos on the RaceRunning section of the CPISRA website or on the links below
We hope you enjoy the videos!
CPISRA is delighted to announce that Dr Marietta van der Linden and Sadaf Jahed from Queen Margaret University Edinburgh, Nicola Tennant from RaceRunning Scotland and Dr Martine Verheul from the University of Edinburgh, have published a journal article called: “The influence of lower limb impairments on RaceRunning performance in athletes with hypertonia, ataxia or athetosis”
The article is published in volume 61 of the Gait and Posture journal and is a piece of research that has developed from their work on RaceRunning and the classification of athletes who want to participate in RaceRunning. CPISRA wants to congratulate Dr van der Linden and her team for this success in their current research on RaceRunning.
Anyone who wants to read this article can do so by following this link - http://eresearch.qmu.ac.uk/5192/.
PhD Studentship Opportunity in Cerebral Palsy, Exercise and RaceRunning
CPISRA is delighted to communicate this PhD studentship opportunity being offered by Queen Margaret University. CPISRA has been collaborating with Queen Margaret University in regard to research relating RaceRunning since 2015 and we highly recommend this opportunity.
University: Queen Margaret University, Edinburgh
Start date: September 2018
Title of project: Does taking part in RaceRunning improve health and wellbeing?
Supervisors: Dr Marietta van der Linden, Dr Pelagia Koufaki and Dr Kavi Jagadamma.
Deadline for applications: Friday 30 March 2018
Description of PhD studentship and topic:
Physical inactivity among people with Cerebral Palsy (CP) persists throughout the lifespan and is associated with risk factors for cardio-metabolic disease in people with CP . For young people with CP, with moderate to severe walking impairments, engaging in physical activities which promote cardiorespiratory fitness is challenging and evidence regarding the benefits of exercise or physical activity for this population is lacking . “RaceRunning” [www.racerunning.org] allows those who are unable to walk or move a wheelchair independently, to propel themselves using a “running bike”, with a breastplate for support, handlebars and saddle but no pedals. Currently, the majority of RaceRunning participants are young people with CP who use the bikes as part of physical education sessions, or therapy in special schools, in weekly training sessions on the track, or to participate in leisure activities e.g. family “walks”. Running bikes therefore allow these young people to take part in an aerobic activity, whilst enabling some weight bearing with the potential to improve lower limb muscle function.
The overall aim of this proposed PhD project is to explore the feasibility of a longitudinal cohort study investigating whether participation in RaceRunning can improve functional mobility and cardio-metabolic health. Additionally, the benefits of taking part in RaceRunning on psychosocial outcomes such as self-efficacy and self-esteem will be explored.
Successful applicants will start in September 2018, and will receive a full waiver of tuition fees, an annual stipend of £14,553 lasting 3 years for full-time study and a research budget of £2,000 to cover project expenses and travel.
As part of the bursary contract, the successful applicant will be asked to undertake a number of school duties (such as research and teaching support) for up to 360 hours over the duration of their bursary.
 Peterson et al. 2015 Chronic conditions in adults with cerebral palsy JAMA 314(21)2303-5.
 Ryan et al. 2017 Exercise interventions for cerebral palsy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews CD011660.
Entry requirements: Applicants must have a first degree in a discipline / field of study relevant to one of CHEAR’s research sub-themes (Physical Activity and Exercise Rehabilitation; Musculoskeletal and Orthopaedic Rehabilitation) and will be expected to complete the PhD programme on a full-time basis. The academic requirements are at least an upper second class honours degree from a UK university, or an equivalent standard from an overseas university, and ideally a Masters degree in a relevant subject.
For informal enquiries, please contact: Dr Marietta van der Linden, Centre for Health Activity and Rehabilitation Research, (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Details of how to apply: All potential applicants are advised to get in touch with Dr Marietta van der Linden (email@example.com) for details of how to apply
CPISRA Research: New Intitiative
CPISRA is extending its activity to facilitating and promoting research into exercise and sport for CP and related conditions. There are a number of reasons for doing this, including benefiting individual sports through improved techniques, training, sports equipment and impairment classification. A further key reason is research will enhance understanding and therefore assist health professionals, sporting bodies, etc. to further encourage recreation and sport development.
Graham Condie, CPISRA Research Officer, will over the coming months write a series of articles relating to understanding and recognising CP participation in sport, recreation and exercise. Each article will be published below. The articles will be detailed and research based with an accompanied summary. We intend the articles to provide research based information and observations that maybe referenced by Members. For example, CPISRA plans to develop a CP Awareness course utilising information from the completed series of articles.
First and Second Articles now Published:
Please find below Graham’s articles published so far. To read click on the article name. If you have any comments or questions please contact Graham at firstname.lastname@example.org .
In collating and listing the below reference information relating to research into CP sport, recreation and exercise we are seeking to assist researchers in background research, raise awareness of research, encourage research networks, monitor research activity and help identify further research needs. For inquiries please you contact Graham Condie at email@example.com .
Reference Lists of Academic Research Papers
Within each section below are listed relevant academic research papers for which we are currently aware. If you know of further paper/s we would very much appreciate you contacting Graham Condie at firstname.lastname@example.org .
Understanding Cerebral Palsy
Condie, G A (2017). Understanding Cerebral Palsy. Ayr: CPISRA
Colver, A., Fairhurst, C and Pharoah, P O D (2014). Cerebral palsy. The Lancet. 383(9924), 1240–1249
Colver, A., Rapp, M., Eisemann, N., Ehlinger, V., Thyen, U., Dickinson, H O., … Arnaud, C (2015). Self-reported quality of life of adolescents with cerebral palsy: A cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis. The Lancet. 385(9969), 705–716
Foose, A and Ardovino, P (2008). Therapeutic Recreation and Developmental Disabilities. In: Robertson, T and Long, T., eds. Foundations of Therapeutic Recreation: perceptions, philosophies and practices for the 21st century. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 127-144
Hoon, A H and Stashinko, E E (2015). Quality of life in adolescents with cerebral palsy. The Lancet. 385(9969), 670–672
Liptak, G S., O’Donnell, M., Conaway, M., Chumlea, W C., Wolrey, G., Henderson, R C., … Stevenson, R D. (2001). Health status of children with moderate to severe cerebral palsy. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 43(6), 364–370
Porretta, D L (2017). Cerebral Palsy, Traumatic Brain Injury, and Stroke. In: Winnick, J P and Porretta, D L., eds. Adapted Physical Education and Sport. 6th ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 217-290
Stanton, M (2002). The Cerebral Palsy Handbook: A practical guide for parents and carers. London: Random House UK Ltd
Stanton, M (2012). Understanding Cerebral Palsy: A Guide for Parents and Professionals. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers
Physiological aspects of Cerebral Palsy
Amichai, T and Katz-Leurer, M (2014) Heart rate variability in children with cerebral palsy: review of the literature and meta-analysis. NeuroRehabilitation. 35(1), 113-122
Hanna, S E., Rosenbaum, P L., Bartlett, D J., Palisano, R J., Walter, S D., Avery, L and Russell, D J (2008). Stability and decline in gross motor function among children and youth with Cerebral Palsy aged 2 to 21 years. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 51(4), 295-302
Hurvitz, E A., Green, L B., Hornyak, J E., Khurana, S R and Koch, L G (2008). Body mass index measures in children with cerebral palsy related to gross motor. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 87(5), 395-403
Klingbeil, H., Baer, H R and Wilson, P E (2004). Aging with a disability. Archives in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 85(3), 68-73
Lavay, B W (2017). Perceptual–Motor Development. In: Winnick, J P and Porretta, D L., eds. Adapted Physical Education and Sport. 6th ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 391-406
Mccormick, A (2017). The Gross Motor Function Classification System: 20 years on. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 59(6), 571
Palisano, R., Rosenbaum, P., Bartlett, D and Livingston, M (2007). GMFCS – E & R Gross Motor Function Classification System Expanded and Revised. CanChild Centre for Childhood Disability Research: McMaster University
Understanding Disability Sports, Recreation, Exercise and Fitness
Bullock, C C and Mahon, M J (2017). Introduction to Recreation Services for People with Disabilities: a person-centered approach. 4th ed. Urbana, IL: Sagamore Publishing
Dattilo, J (2012). Inclusive Leisure Services. State College, PA: Venture Publishing
Dattilo, J (2015). Leisure and People with Disabilities. In: G J. Walker., D. Scott and M. Stodolska. eds., Leisure Matters: The State and Future of Leisure Studies. Urbana, IL: Venture Publishing. pp 225-232
Dattilo, J and McKenney, A (2016). Facilitation Techniques in Therapeutic Recreation. 3rd ed. Urbana, IL: Venture Publishing, In
Darcy, S., Frawley, S and Adair, D (2017). Managing the Paralympics. London: Palgrave MacMillian
DePauw, K P and Gavron, S J (2005). Disability Sport. 2nd ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics
Devine, M A and Piatt, J (2013). Beyond the Right to Inclusion: The intersection of social and environmental justice for inclusion of individuals with disabilities in leisure. In: K. Schwab and D. Dustin. eds., Just Leisure: things that we believe in. Urbana, IL: Sagamore Publishing. pp 27-34
Devine, M A and Mobily, K (2017). Who Should Inhabit Leisure? Disability, Embodiment, and Access to Leisure. In: K. Spracklen., B. Lashua., E. Sharpe and S. Swain. eds., The Palgrave Handbook of Leisure Theory. London: Palgrave Macmillan. pp 743-764
Howe, P D (2008). The Cultural Politics of the Paralympic Movement: Through an Anthropological a Lens. Abington: Routledge
Kasser, S L and Lytle, R K (2013). Inclusive Physical Activity: Promoting Health for a Lifetime. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics
Kunstler, R A. and Daly, F S (2010). Therapeutic Recreation Leadership and Programming. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics
Pegg, S and Compton, D M (2003). Creating Opportunities and Ensuring Access to Leisure and Recreation Services though Inclusion in the Global Community. Leisure/Loisir. 28(1–2), 5–26
Robertson, T. and Long, T (2008). eds. Foundations of Therapeutic Recreation: perceptions, philosophies and practices for the 21st century. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics
Singleton, J and Darcy, S (2013). “Cultural life”, disability, inclusion and citizenship: moving beyond leisure in isolation. Annals of Leisure Research. 16(3), 183–192
Stumbo, N J and Peterson, C A (2009). Therapeutic Recreation Program Design. 5th ed. San Francisco, CA: Pearson Education
Winnick, J P and Porretta, D L (2017). eds. Adapted Physical Education and Sport. 6th ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics
Aspects of Disability Sport and Recreation
Dattilo, J (2015). Positive Psychology and Leisure Education: A Balanced and Systematic Service Delivery Model. Therapeutic Recreation Journal. 49(2), 148-165
Devine, M A (2003). Constraining and Freeing: the meaning of inclusive leisure experiences for individuals with disabilities. Leisure/Loisir. 28(1-2), 27-47
Devine, M A (2004). “Being a ‘Doer’ Instead of a ‘Viewer’”: the role of inclusive leisure contexts in determining social acceptance for people with disabilities. Journal of Leisure Research. 36(2),137-159
Devine, M A (2013). Group Member or Outsider: perceptions of undergraduates with disabilities on leisure time physical activity. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability. 26(2), 119 – 133
Devine, M A and Lashua, B (2002). Constructing social acceptance in inclusive leisure contexts: The role of individuals with disabilities. Therapeutic Recreation Journal. 36(1), 65–83
Groff, G D., Lundberg, N R and Zabriskie R B (2009). Influence of adapted sport on quality of life: perceptions of athletes with cerebral palsy. Disability and Rehabilitation. 31(4), 318-326
Lastuka, A and Cottingham, M (2016). The effect of adaptive sports on employment amongst people with disabilities. Disability and Rehabilitation. 38(8), 742-748
Schleien, S J., Miller, K D., Walton, G and Pruett, S (2014). Parent Perspectives of Barriers to Child Participation in Recreational Activities. Therapeutic Recreation Journal. 48(1), 61–73
Sports Performance and Cerebral Palsy Sport
Barfield, J P., Malone, L A., Collins, J M and Ruble, S B (2005). Disability type influences heart rate response during power wheelchair sport. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 37(5), 718-723
de Groot, S., Dallmeijer, A J., Bessems, P J., Lamberts, M L., van der Woude, L H and Janssen, T W (2012). Comparison of muscle strength, sprint power and aerobic capacity in adults with and without cerebral palsy. Journal of rehabilitation medicine. 44(11), 932-938
Goosey-Tolfrey, V L and Mason, B S (2017). Enhancing Wheelchair Sport Performance. In: Winnick, J P and Porretta, D L., eds. Adapted Physical Education and Sport. 6th ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 565-584
Javis, M and Moody, J (2016). Working with special populations. In: Jeffreys, I and Moody, J., eds. Strength and Conditioning for Sports Performance. Abingdon: Routledge, 506-516
Cerebral Palsy, Physical Activity and Exercise
Conchar, L., Bantjes, J., Swartz, L and Derman, W (2014). Barriers and facilitators to participation in physical activity: The experiences of a group of South African adolescents with cerebral palsy. Journal of Health Psychology. 21(2), 152-163
Damiano, D L (2006). Activity, Activity, Activity: Rethinking Our Physical Therapy Approach to Cerebral Palsy. Physical Therapy. 86(11), 1534-1540
Durstine, J L., Painter, P., Franklin, B A., Morgan, D., Pitetti, K H and Roberts, S O (2000). Physical activity for the chronically ill and disabled. Sports Medicine. 30(3), 207-219
Fowler, E G., Kolobe, T H., Damiano, D L., Thorpe, D E., Morgan, D W., Brunstrom, J E., Coster, W J., Henderson, R C., Pitetti, K H., Rimmer, J H., Rose, J and Stevenson, R D (2007). Promotion of physical fitness and prevention of secondary conditions for children with cerebral palsy: section on pediatrics research summit proceedings. Physical Therapy. 87(11), 1495-1510
Kasser, S L and Lytle, R K (2013). Inclusive Physical Activity: Promoting Health for a Lifetime. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics
Maltais, D B., Wlart, L., Fowler, E., Verschuren, O and Damiano, D L (2014). Health-Related Physical Fitness for Children with Cerebral Palsy. Journal of Child Neurology. 29(8), 1091-1100
Nooijen, C F J., Slaman, J., Stam, H J., Roebroeck, M E., van den Berg-Emons, R and Learn2Move Research Group (2014). Inactive and sedentary lifestyles amongst ambulatory adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation. 11(14), no page numbers shown
Short, F X (2017). Health-Related Physical Fitness and Physical Activity. In: Winnick, J P and Porretta, D L., eds. Adapted Physical Education and Sport. 6th ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 439-454
Swann-Guerrero, S and Mackey, C (2008). Wellness Through Physical Activity. In: Robertson, T. and Long, T., eds. Foundations of Therapeutic Recreation: perceptions, philosophies and practices for the 21st century. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 199-216
Universities conducting Research
Within each section below are listed universities conducting related research for which we are currently aware. If you know of further universities we would very much appreciate you contacting Graham Condie at email@example.com .
Within each section below are research projects that CPISRA feels would be of particularly interest to its members and community. If you know of further projects you believe would be if interest to CPISRA we would very much appreciate you contacting Graham Condie at firstname.lastname@example.org .
Health and Well Being
Within each section below are listed researchers conducting research of particular interest to CPISRA and our community. Each researcher has been invited by CPISRA to be listed.
CPISRA launches Research initiative in partnership with Edinburgh University, Scotland
Click The ParaAthlete – CP Emphasis to watch the Dr. Peter Van de Vliet, IPC Medical and Science Director, talk given at the below joint Edinburgh University and CPISRA seminar.
Edinburgh University and Queen Margaret University
Edinburgh University and Queen Margaret University both located in Edinburgh, Scotland have commenced research projects into RaceRunning in partnership with CPISRA. These projects have two strategic roles, the first being to address the research required by the IPC in evaluating RaceRunning as a future IPC athletics event and the second to be a catalyst for CPISRA facilitating research into CP exercise and sport.